Saturday, September 10, 2016

Been a long time since I rock n' rolled...

I've been meaning to get around to this post for some time but, as many who may still follow this blog and studio might have guessed, it's been a long dry spell of posts. It's been a busy and chaotic few years as I continue to take care of my Father who has dementia. Overall it's manageable but, as you would expect, there are days and there are days. He's been continuing to do quite well though so I can't complain. This, of course, is why posting frequency has gone into the negative integers here, not a lamentation but simply the reality of more important priorities.

This isn't going to be a woe is me, life's hard post or anything of that kind, while being a care-giver can be challenging and even taxing I'm happy I'm able to do it. Your parents take care of you and when the time comes, return the favor, it's the right thing to do. Naturally this is a very time consuming endeavor and it's, of course, going to lead to changes that shift how one manages time and some things have to go on the back burner.


it looks that things have changed a degree as to freeing up some creative breathing room, we just moved into a house.

June was consumed in a rather taxing and tedious move out of our old rat-hole apartment into the house I actually grew up in as a kid. The tedium of the move was ultimately due to the ridiculous situation at this apartment that initiated what was a long overdue move in the first place. There's no need to get into any of that nonsense other than to arrive at the outcome; my Father is much better off in an actual house with handicap facilities already in place and I have a great deal more studio space for returning to my creative endeavors in earnest.

So, in short, we will gradually be easing back into some activity online as new work is completed for posting into the digital wilds. TKP never really stopped, it just went on hiatus online but work continued when time could be made. Posting frequency will be pretty much, stuff comes out when it comes out but I expect the frequency of posts will, indeed, increase.

Happy to be back after being away for so long and very happy to simply say, we're still here rockin' n rollin'.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Summer a blur... Fall of the post-ening-a-ning...

Well, that didn't quite go as planned.

  Clearly my intent to return to posting in a reasonable fashion after the last journal entry didn't materialize... it's been quite an exhausting summer. There's no need to go into detail beyond my Father is doing well but otherwise still has memory/dementia issues that can be rather time consuming depending. Unfortunately and most sadly, there was additionally the passing of my Aunt (on my Mom's side) in July which really has consumed much of what remained of summer. Since her passing I have been helping my Mom sort out her estate so that has taken quite a lot of time and is still ongoing. As I noted in the previous post, family first when your faced with things like this, the art and work will always be there if, and when, I want it to later. All said things are going as well as can be expected. Now with a modicum of calm beginning to settle in it's time I can finally get some of that work that's been backing up posted.

How it this will go will be pretty simple; stuff will drop when it drops but expect stuff to show up for sure, there's actually a lot considering how chaotic the last couple years have been (I just have to sort though all of it). I did manage to work when I could make the time because it's always relaxing to just sit down and do what I love to do; create stuff. The Theos project isn't dead, it just had a little break, new work will materialize as I can get to it and all along with blog posts, etc. I did say new stuff would be coming this year it just ended up a bit later than planned. In fact, head over to our Deviant art gallery for some new stuffs of the day, like now and stuff (stuff example below).


Saturday, February 22, 2014

The Magical Medical Mystery Tour part 2 Electric Boogaloo

This post has been pending for awhile now, it's simply been a matter of finding the time to sit down and compose it, post, and cross-post it.

A year of dead zone for updates here and no new works since July 1st on Deviant Art, where be the arts, where be the Vulne 'o' Pros dudes?  I have posted about this in the past and, again, I'm dropping an update to give a somewhat brief overview of what I've been up to; taking care of my Father as he embarked on 'The Magical Medical Mystery Tour part 2 Electric Boogaloo'. Yes, the latter half of 2013 was pretty busy with the lead up to another surgery, left carotid artery (70% stenosis) endarterectomy. His surgery was last month (the 22nd) and, once again, went well (he had a great surgeon, the same as in 2011) save one complication... he had some cognitive impairment that led to an extended stay hospital inpatient (normally you're discharged in 24 hours for this procedure) and additional extended care/physical therapy for 21 days. His surgeon was not completely sure if he had a TIA (mini stroke) or possible anesthesia hold over, however he was very positive that my Father would recover cognitively pretty quickly though and we'll get to that. So it's been a lot of driving back and forth for pre-op appointments, hospital and extended care visits and making sure he was doing well, etc, etc, etc.

This is the gist of it.

I have no intention to post endlessly (as I echoed the last time I posted updates of this kind in 2011) about all this because I was never big on the whole "tell everyone what you're doing 24/7 social media phenomenon" (not to denigrate anyone else from doing so) and, also, it would just be exhausting to post about it with regularity. I care deeply about how my Father is doing otherwise I wouldn't be doing all I have to make sure he comes though all this but I'd rather post about the work you've all been following than an endless drone about this. It hasn't been some kind of non-stop terrible experience anyway (ups and downs sure but things have, for the most part, been significantly better than they could). Being it's not terribly fun to post about this kind of stuff  I'd rather just do overview updates when it seems I should so here we are. I would have liked to get to it sooner but there simply hasn't been the time.

 My Father was discharged from extended care Tuesday, the 18th, and is now home. The assessment was he would have a lot of issues with basic tasks such as going to the bathroom but I was never sure if I completely saw that was an absolute certainty. It seems I was right because once he got home he has somewhat fallen back into his routine (he is able to get around on his own but I keep an eye on him as he's still not 100%) and the first thing he did was use the bathroom all on his own, no problems (the door was open so I could make sure he was alright). He also has some home care for a time to additionally help but he seems like he needs it less than expected (pretty much all he has for Family to help is myself and his brother who lives up north of us in Davidson MI). It's typically better for a patient with any degree of dementia or memory issues to be at home in a familiar environment so hopefully the trend will be his returning to a comfort zone of routine. It's too soon to tell how things will be but it's looking like he'll be back to his old self or enough so that he'll be reasonably self reliant. None the less I still watch him like a hawk but I'm seeing that's he's adapting to the familiar home environment quickly.

Obviously, this is why there hasn't been any new works or posts for some time. Although it's been a hectic time I actually have been reasonably productive considering what I just reported. Last year I had been involved in a live action pitch project that may or may not see the light of day and I had continued to work on TKP materials whenever there was any time to do so.  Indeed there's a bit of a significant pile of TKP works waiting to be posted, it's just a matter of getting around to all of it (actually a peek at some of that work was previewed on my Facebook page, now one here below, and you can expect to see more soon here and on the Deviant art gallery). We'll see how the landscape looks as things settle down for my Father but I expect I'll be able to get back to posting and sharing new works soon. The image below is background layout in pencil with additional digital gray scale tones in CS3.

I don't mind sharing this overview of what's going on but unless things go south any future updates on My Father will be likely brief and hopefully positive. We certainly do appreciate any well wishes but I'm not actively seeking sympathy, we're doing well and the best we can. Again it's gone pretty well considering. As always I deeply appreciate the interest in Vulne Pro's works and Theos project. Any comments, Deviant notes, email, etc that were unanswered now you understand it wasn't willful ignoring of anyone on my part. I'll see if I can get to some replies to those comments as I can.

Thank you everyone and you should most likely see some new stuff this year so stay tuned!


Wednesday, February 13, 2013

Whale Blubber, Backpacking, and Scripting

What do these things have to do with each other?  Literally, not much.  Figuratively, quite a bit. 
In the old days, whales would be carved up by workers called flensers.  They carried knives that were well-suited to the task of separating Mr. Whale from his body fat, great big honking things that looked like polearms and were called flensing knives. 

(photo courtesy of

They sure weren’t subtle, but then again, neither are whales. 

There’s an old maxim that backpackers use (at least, my scout master taught it to me) that applies when planning what to take when you need to carry everything on your back:  Take half of what you think you’ll need, and then take half of that. 

Now we come to the comic script, where less is almost always more, and the best rule in editing is usually to take your big ol’ flensing knife and carve away excess dialog and exposition with extreme prejudice.  Just hack it away, like whale blubber.  End up with half of what you think you need, then halve it again.
You see, what gets forgotten in a visual medium like comics is that it’s visual medium.  The pictures are there for a reason.  Worth a thousand words?  Not always.  Sometimes it’s a hundred, and sometimes it’s ten grand.  The point is, with a picture showing the reader what’s happening, there’s no need to tell them what’s happening. 

In a comic, use your words for other things, like driving the plot forward or developing the characters.  Use them for exposition as little as possible, and to describe action and emotion not at all.  

I’ll say it again- it’s a bad idea to have any words in your comic that tell the reader what’s happening on the page (Suddenly, Mary heard something!  Suddenly, Tom tripped on a log and fell!)  It’s a very, very bad idea to have anything that tells the reader how to feel about something that’s happened on the page. (Suddenly, Mary heard something!  She was very frightened!  Suddenly, Tom tripped on a log and fell!  How terrible!)  Show, don’t tell!  My examples may be corny, but look at your work carefully or, better yet, have someone else read it and tell them what to look for.  You’ll be surprised how often this happens, even if you’re a veteran.     

I’ve been working on a new project with Pam Bliss.  It’s one of those back-burner projects that started as a raw idea; set to simmer on low, it’s taken shape over the last year as we passed a script back and forth, working on it in odd moments.  We finally achieved a critical mass of goodness and coherency and it now has the green light.  I took to the script with my flensing knife, trying to peel it down to its lean skeleton, taking off a year’s worth of accumulated fat.  Something happened then that’s never happened before.  Pam sent it back to me, saying I’d trimmed off too much.  I’ve never trimmed off too much before.  It’s very hard to do.  

So don’t be afraid to make deep cuts.  Nine times out of ten, something that sticks out as flabby can probably be handled by a character’s expression or by information in the panel.  If it’s not character-building or moving the story forward, it probably doesn’t need to be there.  When in doubt, cut it out. 

More to come.  

Monday, December 31, 2012


This is a cat. This is our cat, he has fur and insanity.

Works, things, and stuffs to surface. Creative momentum continues ever forward. Stay tuned for further transmissions...

Monday, April 30, 2012

The evolution of Gumbinnen Sems into the 2000s

The last post I covered, in detail, the genesis of Gumbinnen as the original and very first sendai design I had created in the 90s. The creation of this character being of note because it was the first design to spawn all the ideas that would evolve into the sendai that populate the settings of Theos KE Polemos. With this post we're going to cover Gumbinnen's make-over into the current visual aesthetics TKP is known for.

2010 Theos KE Polemos: Badan Song

Most of you following the Theos project, whether on Deviant arttumblrPixiv, or here are likely more famlilar with the FOILs than their smaller brethren the sendai rank and file. That began to gradually change in 2010 when more examples of the sendai, primarily examples of those populating the industrial planet Indus, began showing up in the Vulne Pro Deviant art gallery. It was late in 2010 I had begun planning to explore the material that was originally Beyond Reach in some greater detail, those explorations became Badan Song. With Gumbinnen being a major character in this material it meant revisiting the old design for a TKP make-over. I began working on a first pass in October along with plans to begin preliminary work on this material. The early Photoshop grayscale paint is below.

The first pass at a new Gumbinnen went unfinished... my Father would have an accidental fall the following month (on Thanksgiving of all days) fracturing his arm and kicking off an entire year (2011) of medical issues. Needless to say Badan Song, Gumbee, and pretty much everything had to be shelved. I had zero problems with putting the work, studio, and freelancing, on the back burner. I'm glad I could be there to spend that year taking care of my Father, it's because I did so he's doing well today. 2011 was a long year in and out of doctors offices and hospital rooms, extended care, etc. so my focus was on navigating all that and doing what I could for my Father. Amazingly he came through every challenge extremely well so by the end of the year things began to stabilize and I could both work again and keep an eye on him. Gradually things got back in gear.

2012 Gumbinnen Sems 5th gen Combat Taedus

Once 2012 kicked off I knew I'd have a juggling act of work and keeping an eye on my Father. With things going reasonably well, under the circumstances, the plans are to pick up where things left off in 2010 and return to a more productive schedule again... because those damn Mayans are coming with their UFO fleet of doom. These wily ancient-alienz-über-apocalypto-doom bringers are intent on cracking the Earth in twain, thus spilling it's rich nougaty center. How the Mayan's covet our nougat. Mayan jokes not withstanding we do have some interesting things planned for this year. With Badan Song moving forward again Gumbinnen had to be sorted out because he's, more or less, one of the star sendai. I liked some of what was going on with the 2010 version (see above) but I just didn't feel it was there so it seemed starting anew was the way to go. During one of my laundromat sketch jams I cranked out a pile of Gumbinnen thumbs. Some examples are part of the thumb collection above. This batch of laundry thumbs landed in the place I wanted his make-over to go.

As can be seen in the thumb collection there was a mix of more hard panel versions and some with a more mixed hard to organic surface approach. Ultimately the batch of revisions I began gravitating toward landed in a look that certainly evoked the original 90s design while bringing in the new 5th gen FOIL aesthetics and cues of TKP's mutated art deco. His limbs now had the distinct covered fabric/armor look the 5th gen FOILs employ (which makes sense as Gumbinnen would be created in the late 4th to early 5th gen period) along with various textures as well. Also his limbs have the familiar 5th gen connection port caps. These caps are simply covers for ports intended to connect additional armor, parts, weapons, etc (note the left shoulder armor on the finished design has one of these ports in the center without the cap cover). His body has various parts with a simulated deco bakelite texture (most distinct on his shoulder "grilles") evocative of the classic 40s deco bakelite radios streamline look. His legs begged for a decidedly reverse joint style which seemed to be more visually appealing and convincing at the same time. For his feet he got a unique squishy three toe design that would be movable like a real foot but far more resilient and strong.

The gear featured on Gumbinnen, as displayed, is a fully flexible system of equipment that can be customized and modded to tactical and law enforcement situations as needed. The running studio brief joke, Nick, Karl, and myself have, regarding exploring this with combat sendai is "tacti-cool". Another words Combat sendai gear will be tailor made for al kinds of interesting combinations and weapon packs, add-ons, etc. On Gumbinnen's wrists, like the original design, he has two additional reverse toes. on the TKP version those toes also have built in lighters (tasers) for additional close quarters attacks. The long bars on his shoulders are additional sensor equipment,  augmented smell, touch, etc. Also the top left sensor has a lock pick lighter and omni-link (Omnisense tap interface). Gumbinnen has the capacity for flight, there is a small anti-gravitic Icar device that, like the FOILs, assists him in flying. Also, as with the FOILs, Gumbinnen can not access or repair this device on his own, it can only be serviced at an Oshen certified sendai repair/medical station. The use of the Icar devices is something more akin to breathing than a conscious consideration of it as a form of technology. Being it's commonly not understood how the devices work or who developed them it's simply not questioned. There are other secrets lurking within Gumbinnen beyond the mysterious Icar drive but that's for another time.

Gumbinnen full color.

That's it for now. It was fun exploring what really started all this sendai stuff in the first place along with visiting a character I created some time back when all this stuff was fresh and new to me. There's a lot of stuff baking behind the scenes so stay tuned... more to come.


Friday, April 13, 2012

The origin of the bio-mechanical sendai of Theos KE Polemos

Thus far the year has been rather productive. Quietly behind the scenes we've been laying the groundwork for greater plans later this year regarding Vulne Pro's creative efforts and the TKP project continuing forward. Moving along into the year it's time to ramp things up.

With the recent posting of an updated design for Gumbinnen Sems on Deviant Art I thought it would be of interest to go into the origin of the sendai; the bio-mechanical characters that populate universe of Theos KE Polemos along with their human creators. What makes the posting of the new Gumbinnen design noteworthy is that Gumbinnen "Gumbee" Sems is the very first sendai design I created. His origin and evolution is theirs.

Examples of the early Gumbinnen designs are peppered throughout this post. The 1990 original design can be seen in the collection to the above right.

1990 The first sendai "Gumbee"

The original Gumbinnen was something I drew way back in 1990, when I was 19. I became interested in mecha when my Father bought me some of the Robotech kits in 84. The following year Robotech debuted on TV. It was my familiarity of the kits that compelled me to watch the show, Macross (yes Robotech-ized but Macross was the least changed of the 3 shows they joined together) was what kept me watching even though there were no Dougram or Orguss bots anywhere to be seen in the animation. The show and this new (to me and many who tuned in at the time) form of animated storytelling from Japan cemented my interest in robots conceptually for good. The show also began my interest in animation as a storytelling medium. From that point on I began drawing my own robotic creations (and pretty much anything else conceivable in world building) and have been doing so ever since. Most of those early creations weren't worth noting. It wasn't until the 90s that, you could say, I came into a discernible style that was my own visual voice coming through beyond any influences I had at the time. It was then that early traces of my current signature style with mecha were beginning to come into focus. However Gumbee wasn't part of Theos KE Polemos at that time because Theos didn't actually exist in 1990... at least not in the form it does now.

A project created in roughly 1988 to 89 (the precise dates on this elude me) by Steve Loveland (a close friend I've known since grade school) and myself called 'Earth don't Work with Peanut Butter in the Gears' was to become the foundation that many concepts later appearing in Theos KE Polemos came from. A dramady, of sorts, "Peanut Butter" (clearly some comedy in the absurd title) featured detective characters and their bio-mechanical partners called taedus, or taedai in the plural, inhabiting a rather film noir urban setting. Also we came up with SADUS (Self Aware Defense Utility System) and SACUS (Self Aware Civilian Utility System) which were, more or less, sendai as well. It is from the plural taedai that, later I came up with the sendai descriptive of all TKP bio-mechanicals evolved from. It was not intended as reference to the Japanese city of Sendai it simply seemed to fit the fictional entomology that favored dai as a suffix. We may have been young but the ideas we came up with were generally well thought out and some of the core foundations survive today. They were actually solid enough concepts worthy of developing further. Here in the "Peanut Butter" material, and Gumbinnen's creation, we can see some familiar TKP elements already. Both Steve and I developed the various "gear" and tech Gumbinnen's design employed along with ideas that form much of the bedrock for the sendai in Theos.

There's no question the popular mecha works of the classic 80s anime such as; Zeta Gundam, Macross, Votoms, Layzner, Dragonar 1, Crusher Joe, etc, along with Masamune Shirow's manga Appleseed had some influence on these early designs. In fact if there's any old school mecha designs I can cite as having the most direct inspiration for the direction I took with Gumbinnen it was Cruise Chaser Blassty's wild bots designed by Akitaka Mika. There were a pair of designs from Blassty; Areld and Knock Turn that had an air-frame/formula-one-ish vibe to their aesthetics. I, in turn, took a cue from that and went to WWII aircraft for my own aesthetics inspirations going more organic, rounded shapes, etc. What I did with Gumbee went its own visual direction but, from what I recall, I believe it was Blassty that inspired that path to a degree. I feel credit where credit is due. Granted, at the time, I personally don't feel I had anywhere near the chops Mr. Akitaka had. However I think it might have actually been my lack of experience, and dogged desire to do my original own thing, (and this goes for Steve as well at the time) that made the Gumbee design pretty different, even citing what inspired it.

Additionally if there was any animated film I could cite for my committing to a path of original works and unique visual world design (and I've cited it before) it would be Gainax's debut film: 'Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise'. That film really fired my imagination toward creating original content with emphasis on strong unified art direction and it still does. The film was a labor of love for those young artists that created it, it pours from every frame. That kind of creativity is exciting to me. Though the film wasn't a success upon release it has since become a cult classic and like many other cult films is recognized now for the landmark work it was.

Very little is created in a total vacuum, it always comes from somewhere. As an artist it's your job to bring your own personal perspectives to the table allowing your own distinct voice to come through. How you discover an original voice is in finding your own unique ways to express what has already been done... because pretty much everything has been done before. I still am very much committed to original works but always put this into perspective. Influences and inspirations are always going to be there but for me, personally, it's far more fun to work toward something you haven't quite seen, even when quoting from established aesthetics and rules. It really is kinda like jamming in music, getting in the grove once you know the musical language. Designing a robot is no different in many ways, learn the language, create your own language, begin constructing your own riffs, and get in the groove.

All said back then we were ultimately forging our own creative path fiercely committed to being as original and true to ourselves as we could be. During that time it was the bold creativity on display in much of the classic 80s anime (visually and on occasion in narrative, though there was crap made back then too for some perspective here) that made it so inspiring. It drove us to push our own boundaries and much of the "Peanut Butter" material was rather unique for it. There was no internet at the time to learn from others, post and share art, "google" ideas, nobody to teach you this stuff (mecha design). You had to figure it out on your own, study and learn from art books, magazines (Animedia, Animage, Hobby Japan), whatever. That seeming new frontier of creativity was what attracted me to anime as a medium, not an excuse to simply consume it as a fan. There's nothing wrong with being a fan but if you have the means and desire to create then you're no longer in need to simply consume, go forth and create.

A lot of wild ideas evolved with the Peanut Butter project and one that is very familiar to those following Theos are the sendai, which FOILs ultimately are a part of. Gumbinnen, as a design (not in context of the story his creation is part of the 5th gen period which is late in the timeline) is the very first taedus, and thus the first sendai.

1993 Port Slyvane

Scenes above of Remindeff (Heath Wuthering) and Gumbinnen asleep on the job. Yes, that is real zip-a-tone (note the yellowing on the zip these are old pages after all).

To the left a shot of Gumbinnen in flight with an assault shettier, of some kind, at the ready. More sample images, to the lower right, from an unfinished 'Peanut Butter' comic titled 'Port Sylvane'. Circa roughly 1993 or so.

The comic was a 23 page short story featuring Gumbee and his partner Remindeff Willoughby (Heath Wuthering) called in, by the Genuaä Policers, to assist in diffusing a potentially volatile political situation from unfolding. A special investigations task force, headed by a fellow Genuaä policer, is in pursuit of illegal cyborgs (Hudai in TKP) and things get out of hand from there. The comic was unfinished due to various circumstances and the impetuousness of youth. The eagle eyed may note the bottom frame from a certain TKP image art piece that I did as an updated version of this shot. After Port Sylvane I took a hiatus from the material for 7 years to pursue music recording and continued studies of fine art. I didn't revisit The "Peanut Butter" material until late 1999-early 2000. It was roughly around this time that the nascent ideas that were to evolve into Theos KE Polemos began rolling around in my head.

1999 Basilea: Beyond Reach 

As the new  millennium  was approaching along with epic biblical apocalypse, Y2K, and whatever absurd doom of the world nonsense was bearing down on us I kept having ideas flooding my brain regarding the "Peanut Butter" characters and settings, the ideas were too compelling not to return. It became apparent I needed to begin to crystallize some of these ideas so, along with a lot of writing and brainstorming, I drew Beyond Reach.

Scenes from the six page 'Beyond Reach' short from early 1999. It was made as a test for the pencil style it employed and to show as portfolio content. The story was pre-Theos KE Polemos but essentially Indus in setting and TKP in content. Beyond Reach was an older take on the Badan Song material (which will be coming to light more and more) featuring Gumbinnen as a central character during a series of escalating events threatening his home of Genuaä in the architectural hall of mirrors that is the planet Indus. So clearly those core elements from the older work were evolving.
The six pages were entirely traditional media, all pencil shaded with polyurethane coating to deepen contrasts and age the paper (the yellow/sepia look is not Photoshop but the result of using this approach).
Though the current narrative of Badan Song has some rather significant changes the core elements of plot have remained and come from this early take on the material. The first two pages feature Gumbinnen pursuing an out of control sendai from the political bloc of Gërmane.

In the scene to the left a Gërmane roundhead is shooting the living crap out of the roof of an Indus wallrider. The polyurethane look does have a distinct atmosphere and carried the film noir thematic well.

The pages generated a lot of interest during my attendance of various comic cons at the time.

The reactions I had been getting seemed to be rather consistent; a visual style of anime mixed with Heavy Metal (Metal Hurlant) which I kinda took a small amount of pride in simply because I wasn't trying to just copy anime, I was doing my own thing. Although I wasn't influenced directly by European comics at the time I can understand why people had those impressions my visual sensibilities were probably closer to that aesthetic to some degree on this work. It's been several years since I last cracked out the polyurethane... something tells me I'll be doing so again soon. I really love working with it.

These pages were also partly responsible for my working for Dremwave comics for a time. I had originally been tapped to draw Transformers and there were even talks about possibly doing Badan Song for them. Thankfully it didn't work out that way and I ended up doing colors on Transformers for a year. Why, thankfully? Because Dreamwave folded in a somewhat messy flame-out and I would have had to compromise the material significantly potentially surrendering the I.P. to them fully (every "original" book they put out was "created by" Pat Lee and TKP is NOT by Pat Lee with due respect). I wisely, and quietly, left on good terms fully paid before that happened because I could see the writing on the wall. I believe it was a month or two after I left that they folded.

The Beyond Reach short was just part of my returning to the characters and designs I had so much fun with creating as a teen. During this time reacquainting myself with these concepts a little something involving FOILs would begin to evolve and grow into a considerable project as well. You all are pretty familiar with that work by now.  I hope those of you following this project will find this walk down memory lane interesting.

Next post part 2: Revisiting Gumbinnen in the 2000s